©FOUNDATION Magazine, Jul-Aug 2001
The Role of Women in the Local Church
The Proliferation of Female Clergy Within the Christian Church
The role of women in local Christian assemblies has been a matter of debate
within Christendom for many years. Yet within the past 25 years, this issue
has risen to a climax not only in several mainline Protestant and Orthodox
denominations but also in evangelical churches as well. The issue of the
role of women in the church served as a matter of contention at the Eighth
Assembly of the World Council of Churches in Harare, Zimbabwe, in December
1998 when the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches voiced their displeasure
of the fact that the majority of the WCC's member churches and denominations
ordain women as ministers and priests.1 In the United States,
the Presbyterian Church USA, the Episcopal Church USA, The United Church
of Christ, the United Methodist Church, the Reformed Church in America, the
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Church of the Brethren and the
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) are only a few of the many mainline
denominations that ordain women into ministry and encourage them to serve
as pastors and bishops of local congregations.
In a recent study of denominations that ordain women, researchers found that
the number of ordained women ministers in 15 large Protestant denominations
grew exponentially between 1977 and 1994. A Hartford Seminary study discovered
that within this time period, the number of female clergy increased from
157 to 712 in the American Baptist Church USA, from 94 to 1,394 in the Episcopal
Church USA, from 388 to 988 in the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ),
from 73 to 1,519 in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, from 350
to 2,705 in the Presbyterian Church (USA) and from 319 to 3,003 in the United
Methodist Church.2 It is also interesting to note that approximately
25 percent of the female clergy and 19 percent of the male clergy who participated
in the study were divorced. The survey concludes as follows: "Clergy
women are reinventing ministry for the future, refusing the old definitions
and expectations. Clergy women are expanding the very essence of Christian
ministry and guiding the whole church to rethink and renew its leadership
Not only are clergywomen growing within liberal denominations in the United
States but also within Evangelical and conservative churches and denominations
as well. Notice the following facts about these popular denominations and
- Southern Baptist Convention - According to one source, the Southern Baptist
Convention has approximately 1,130 ordained women filling various roles
- The Association of Vineyard Churches - This group only allows men to
fulfill the office of elder and pastor but allows women to "preach,
teach, evangelize, heal, prophesy, counsel, nurture, administrate, and
build up the flock of God."5
- The Church of the Nazarene - One researcher reports that this denomination "has
ordained women to the ministry since its founding in 1908 and supports
the right of women to use their God-given spiritual gifts within the
church. Nazarenes affirm the right of women to be elected and appointed
to places of leadership at all levels of the church."6 It
is important to note that some churches within this denomination have
shunned their denominational title (Church of the Nazarene) for a more
generic, community oriented name (e.g. New Life Community Church, etc.).
- Assemblies of God USA - The Assemblies of God believes women can serve
in all roles of church ministry including that of pastor. In a position
paper entitled "The Role of Women in Ministry as Described in Holy
Scripture," the authors conclude, "We cannot find convincing
evidence that the ministry of women is restricted according to some sacred
or immutable principle. ... The existence in the secular world of bigotry
against women cannot be denied. But there is no place for such an attitude
in the body of Christ. We acknowledge that attitudes of secular society,
based on long-standing practice and tradition, have influenced the application
of biblical principles to local circumstances."7
- Free Methodist Church of North America - This is the denomination in
which the previous president of the National Association of Evangelicals,
Kevin Mannoia, is an ordained bishop. This denomination believes that "the
Gospel of Jesus Christ ... knows no distinction of race, condition or
sex. ... With these beliefs, women should be encouraged to take their
place in all areas of church leadership and ministry. "8
- Many other churches, fellowships and denominations including the Open
Bible Standard Churches, Inc.; International Church of the Foursquare
Gospel; The Church of God (Anderson, IN) and others allow women to hold
positions of pastoral authority within the local church.
Not only have denominations and local churches advanced the cause of women
clergy, but notable religious figures have done their part to popularize
this trend as well. Anne Graham Lotz, daughter of evangelist Billy Graham,
is now one of the most popular woman preachers in the world. Lotz recently
told one television news program that her parents used to disapprove of her
ministry until they heard her preach. "They saw that my home was clean,
my children were well-behaved, my husband was happy and very supportive," she
said, "And they just backed off and could see that God had called me."9 One
group of prominent
"evangelical" theologians has formed Christians for Biblical Equality
(CBE), an organization in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that zealously promotes
equal roles for women in the church and home. Notable theologians who comprise
CBE's Board of Reference include Tony Campolo, Vernon Grounds, Roberta Hestenes,
Millard Erickson, Gordon Fee, Myron S. Augsburger and John R. Kohlenberger
III. The Dallas Morning News, which recently featured a story
on the CBE, reported that Charisma editor J. Lee Grady is also a supporter
of CBE.10 The article also noted that Promise Keepers, another "evangelical" parachurch
organization, has refused to take an official stance on the role of women
in the church and stated that, in turn, "CBE leaders are cautious about
criticizing Promise Keepers."11
Clearly, with the growth of the Charismatic and Pentecostal Movements which
advocate female clergy and the increasing ecumenical inclusiveness of many
evangelical churches, it is vitally important for the Fundamentalist Christian
to know what God's Word teaches regarding this issue so that he might know
how to answer those who question his position concerning the role of women
in the ministry of the local church. It is evident that the majority of professing
Christians and Christian churches today allow women to fill positions of
pastoral leadership in the local church. This serious issue will remain with
the church and continue to permeate all realms of Christian thought and practice
as women's roles of pastoral leadership in churches and denominations continue
to become more accepted and commonplace in the Christian community.
A Brief Historical Look at Views Concerning the Role of Women in the Local
In their simplest form, the views concerning the role of women in local church
ministry are most often broken down by scholars into two distinct groups:
those who believe women should be permitted to hold positions of pastoral
authority in the church and those who believe that only men are permitted
to hold such positions in the local church. Those who believe women should
be restricted from holding an authoritative, pastoral role in the church
embrace what is known as the "historic" or "traditional" view.
On the other hand, those who believe women should possess the ability to
occupy all positions of leadership within the church embrace what is referred
to as the "egalitarian" or "progressive" view.
Obviously, pastors and theologians do not always subscribe solely to all aspects
of one view or the other. Various nuances of these views exist among those
who have studied the issue. For example, some might hold to the position
that women cannot serve in the local church as senior pastors but are permitted
to serve as assistant or associate pastors. Others might believe that women
should not serve in any form of pastoral role in the local church but are
free to teach men and women in an adult Sunday school class. In any
case, for the purpose of clarification within this article and due to the
limitations of space and content, this article will simply define those who
permit women to hold any form of pastoral role within the local church
as ones who hold the progressive or egalitarian view and any who forbid women
to hold a position of teaching authority over men as those who hold to the
historic or traditional view.
According to author Daniel Doriani, those who hold to the historic view of
women in ministry can claim the support of traditional Christian thought
and teaching throughout church history.12 In fact, one author,
Robert Yarbrough, has conducted an insightful study on the hermeneutics of
1 Timothy 2:9-15 in which he concludes that the
"progressive" view has been shaped more by the social climate of
the mid-20th century rather than the Biblical text itself.13 He
cites, "It strains credulity to the breaking point to maintain that
it is mere coincidence that 'progressive' readings of I Timothy 2, which
were virtually unheard of in church history prior to the women's movement
of the 1960s, are not indebted to that movement in fundamental respects for
their plausibility."14 Although Doriani did cite three feminist
writers from the 19th century who pioneered a progressive understanding of
women's role in the church (Catherine Booth, Frances Willard and Katherine
Bushnell), clearly the majority of the shift from traditionalist to progressive
writings and beliefs concerning the woman's role in the church appeared during
the 20th century.
The Biblical View of Women's Role in the Local Church
While a variety of arguments promoting the progressive view exist, the scope
of this article does not allow room for an extensive examination of each
view, nor will it attempt to provide a rebuttal for every argument. Rather,
this section of the article will simply, but carefully, determine the intent
of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 within the confines of the Pastoral Epistles (First and
Second Timothy and Titus) while referring, as necessary, to other New Testament
texts regarding the Bible's teaching concerning the role of women within
the local church setting. Several principles will be set forth and supported
by the Biblical text as well as by theologians who have carefully studied
the Biblical text and arrived at what the writer believes to be a sound conclusion.
Yet before noticing what God's Word says about this important issue, the reader
must decide whether or not he or she will accept the very words of Scripture
as the inspired and inerrant words of God. Many who espouse a progressive
view of women in ministry hold a low view of Scripture, viewing the Biblical
text as the ideas, philosophies and musings of men (such as the Apostle Paul)
rather than the very words of God given to men by the direct act of inspiration
by the Holy Spirit. If one concludes that the words of the text under consideration
simply reflect the cultural milieu of the apostle Paul and therefore cannot
be considered authoritative for the 21st century, then no other argument
or investigation into the topic can proceed, for one's beliefs are subject
to the conclusions and judgments of men rather than the absolute and unchanging
truth of God Himself.
However, if one accepts the Bible as inerrant, authoritative and
"God-breathed," then he will know that all Scripture is profitable
for doctrine and he will refrain from discarding those portions he does not
believe to be relevant or applicable to his own situation.
Principle #1: Women Are to Teach Other Women
Paul's New Testament epistle to Titus contains instruction concerning Titus'
need to "set in order the things that [were] wanting" (Titus1:5)
in the local church and his need to "ordain elders in every city" on
the island of Crete. Paul specifically instructed Titus to "speak thou
the things which become sound doctrine" (Titus 2: 1), the very "things"
that were being perverted by the false teachers influencing the church at
Crete. Within the confines of the local church ministry, one area of "sound
doctrine" that Titus was to emphasize was the truth that the older women
of the congregation were to be "teachers of good things"
(Titus 2:3). Specifically, these women were to "teach the young women
to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet,
chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands" (Titus
2:4-5). Such teaching concerning obedience and morality was vitally important
to the health of the body of Christ. Why? So the Word of God would not be "blasphemed" or
reproached (Titus 2:5).
From this text, it is evident that women are to teach other women and that
God has prescribed an order of conduct for women which, if followed, glorifies
Him and causes His name to be glorified rather than reproached or blasphemed.
The exact nature of this "teaching" ministry of women is not explicitly
stated, but certainly this ministry could be advanced in either a classroom
setting or on a personal discipleship arrangement. Thomas Oden, one who holds
an egalitarian view of women in ministry, notes, "Mature women were
specifically designated in Titus 2:3 as teachers (kalodidaskalous, teachers
of what is good). Mature women are the natural counselors of the young. Their
teaching of virtue is best done by example."15 Whether women
teach other women at the local church (as is the case in many of today's
Sunday school class arrangements) or whether they teach them outside the
confines of the local church, the command remains the same: Women are to
teach other women, at the very least by their own example if not also by
verbal instruction as well.
Principle #2: Women Are to Adorn Themselves With Good Works
In 1 Timothy 2:1-15, Paul gives instructions for public worship by believers.
Within this context, Paul instructs women in the congregation to dress modestly
rather than in an ostentatious or ornate manner (vs. 9-10). But rather than
writing simply a legalistic style manual for women, Paul penned these verses
by inspiration of the Holy Spirit in an effort to lay down a Biblical principle
for corporate worship in the local church. The principle is this: A woman's
character is more important than her apparel. Homer Kent writes, "She
is to adorn herself with good works. Her adorning, that which gives her attractiveness,
is not to be costly array but exhibitions of Christian character ... Every
Christian woman should prize more highly a testimony to her Christian labors
than a reputation as the best-dressed woman in the congregation."16 Kent
cites the Scriptural examples of Phoebe, Lydia and Dorcas as those whose
works were edifying to the body of Christ and left lasting impressions not
only on those with whom they came into contact but also upon the entire church
unto this very day.
Even today, women have a responsibility within the local church to minister
to others through their good works and to be known for who they truly are
through their Godly Christian character. Women can demonstrate their good
works within the local church body through a variety of ways. Showing hospitality,
encouraging others, teaching other women and keeping believers up-to-date
on the ministries of the church and the church's missionaries are just a
few ways in which good works and Godly character can be revealed in the local
assembly on the part of Christian women.
Principle #3: Women Are to Be Active Learners
Not only are women in the local church to teach other women and maintain good
works and Godly character, but Paul also commands them to be learners. In
his second epistle to Timothy, Paul states that the false teachers had influenced
some of the women in the Ephesian church (2 Tim. 3:6-7). Ann Bowman notes
that "it seems [Paul] knew it was important that they be well grounded
in the Scriptures."17 Of course, in order to be grounded
in the Scriptures, it was imperative that the women learn sound doctrine
and obey that which they had learned.
First Timothy 2:11 delineates how the women were to learn in the local assembly: "Let
the woman learn in silence with all subjection." It is important to
note that this statement does not imply that the woman is to completely keep
silent within the entire public worship service of the local church. Rather,
the woman is to keep silent only in the process of learning, that is, when
the male leader of the church is authoritatively teaching the doctrine found
in the Word of God. Schreiner says, "The focus of the command is not
on women learning, but the manner and mode of their learning."18 Bowman
describes the manner of learning as having two parts: First, women are to
learn in silence, or quietness, which denotes outward manner. Second, they
are to learn in all submissiveness, which denotes the attitude of the heart
that must accompany leaming.19
This in unction demonstrates Christianity's high regard for women in contrast
to much of the New Testament culture as well as the Judaic tradition. In
many cultures, women were prohibited even from learning, much less teaching
or reading in public. Donald Guthrie writes that "the equality of the
sexes... received little recognition in ancient times. Not only was the prevailing
Greek attitude against it, but Hebrew thought was equally unsympathetic."20 For
example, Guthrie states that "Rabbinic prohibitions were much more severe
than the Christian prohibitions," for women were not even allowed to
teach small children. In contrast, the apostle Paul commands women in the
local assembly to listen attentively and to quietly submit their thoughts
and hearts to the teaching of the Word of God.
It is evident from the aforementioned principles that women possess a role
and function in the church that brings glory to God and benefits the entire
body of Christ. In his book, What's a Woman to Do ...In the Church?, David
Nicholas lists a variety of ministries that women could fulfill not only
in the church but also in the community as they teach other women, learn
God's Word and adorn themselves with good works. Such roles could include:
- A Ministry in Christian Education
- A Ministry in Christian Schools
- A Ministry in Christian Higher Education
- A Ministry in Personal Evangelism and Discipleship
- A Ministry of Child Evangelism
- A Ministry in Missions
- A Ministry to Women
- A Ministry in Christian Publications
Certainly a woman can fill a variety of roles that would bring honor to God
and would edify the entire body of Christ. Yet while women can serve in a
variety of areas in the church, the Word of God sets forth a final principle
that forbids women to exercise one particular function in the church.
Principle #4: Women Are Prohibited From Exercising Authoritative Leadership
or Teaching of the Word of God Over Men in the Local Assembly
An accurate understanding of 1Timothy 2:12-14 is the key to a proper understanding
of a woman's role in the local church. Verse 12 states,
"But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the
man, but to be in silence." At this point it is necessary to note two
prevalent, but inadequate, arguments that promote an egalitarian view of
women in the local church. First, some claim that this verse is simply an
opinion of the apostle rather than an authoritative proclamation of God for
all ages. However, as previously noted, such a view falls short and must
not be tolerated by those who accept the inerrancy and inspiration of Scripture.
Nicholas does a superb job addressing this issue in his book, What's a
Woman to Do ...In the Church?, and concludes by stating that "what
really is at stake in the evangelical egalitarian controversy is not women's
but, rather, "the trustworthiness of the Scriptures, since the most
ardent advocates of egalitarianism in marriage and the church reach their
conclusions by denying the infallibility and inerrancy of the Bible."21
A second argument prevalent among egalitarians is that Paul was simply giving
a temporal, local command only for the church at Ephesus due to the culture
in which this church was enveloped. In other words, this injunction only
applied to the local church at Ephesus. Some argue that Paul's command was
issued to the church as a result of the status of women within the Ephesian
culture and the prominence of the pagan fertility cult within the city. S.
M. Baugh answers this argument in an article entirely devoted to the question
of whether or not Ephesus was as "feminist" as many think. He compellingly
debunks this view of Ephesus and the egalitarian argument by concluding,
Paul's injunctions throughout 1 Timothy 2:9-15, then, are not temporary
measures in a unique social setting. Ephesus's society and religion-even
the cult of Artemis Ephesia-shared typical features with many other contemporary
Greco-Roman cities. ... Hence, we have every reason to expect Paul to
apply the restriction of women from teaching and exercising official
rule over a man to "every place" (v. 8). ...Exegetical treatments
can proceed with the assumption that Ephesus was not a unique society
as we read today...22
Another author agrees and notes that the context itself reveals that Paul's
statement is not directed only to a local assembly, for Paul supports his
command regarding a woman's role in the church by way of a universal principle. T.
David Gordon writes,
It is crucial to note the causal relation of verses 13 and 14 to the preceding
verses. Paul grounds his comments in a reality that exists outside of
Ephesus: "For Adam was first formed, then Eve; and Adam was not
deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor." This
is sufficient reason to recognize that some enduring principle is applied
to this specific situation. The convergence of norm and occasion that
we expect to find in Paul's letters is expressly communicated in the
present passage. There is a command, and there is a norm, and these are
connected by a causal particle (gar).23
So what does 1 Timothy 2:12 mean? The answer lies in the word teach (didaskein). Bowen writes that the word "refers
almost exclusively to public instruction or teaching of groups."24 She
cites a study by Roy B. Zuck in which he found that out of approximately
100 occurrences of the word in the New Testament, only three times does the
word refer to the teaching of individuals (Jn. 8:28; Rom. 2:21; Rev. 2:14).
So in this instance, to "teach" involves the public pronouncement
of the Word of God.
Yet the word teach is even further confined to its meaning within the
Pastoral Epistles. Robert L. Saucy penned a helpful article detailing the
meaning of teach in 1 Timothy 2:12 and its meaning within the entire
context of the Pastoral Epistles.25 Although Saucy falls short
of actually concluding that women should refrain from any pastoral role in
the church, he aptly argues that to
"teach" in this verse involves the passing down, guarding and keeping
of the doctrine that had been entrusted to the church. That which was to
be taught is described in the Pastorals as "doctrine" (1 Tim. 1:3;
2 Tim. 3:10), a "faithful saying" 1 Tim. 1:15; 4:9; 2 Tim. 2:11;
Titus 3:8), a "true saying" (1 Tim. 3:1), "faith" (1
Tim. 4:6; Titus 1:13),
"sound doctrine" or "good doctrine" (1 Tim. 4:6; Titus
"wholesome words" or "sound words" (1 Tim. 6:3; 2 Tim.
1:13), "the truth" (2 Tim. 2:18; 4:4), "the word" (2
Tim. 4:2) and "the faithful word" (Titus 1:9). It is important
to note that these vital truths from God Himself were to be taught "with
all authority" (1 Tim. 3:2; Titus 2:15). Saucy writes, "The emphasis
on teaching and the vital importance of its function in maintaining true
Christian doctrine already suggest that considerable authority is attached
to this ministry in the pastoral letters."26 He adds, "The
strong relationship of the function of teaching to the leaders in the pastorals
clearly suggests that there is an authoritative element attached to it."27 Kent
agrees yet broadens the scope of the term to relate to its context within
the entire New Testament. He writes, "The role of teacher in New Testament
days was an authoritative office."28 This understanding of "teaching"
in the pastoral epistles is tied to the further injunction to refrain from "usurping]
authority over the man." It is evident, then, that women are prohibited
from preaching, that is, exercising the ministry of authoritative proclamation
of the Word of God over men in the local worship assembly. This would, however,
allow for women to fulfill a variety of ministry opportunities in the church
as long as they did not authoritatively teach the Word of God to men.
First Timothy 2:13-14 gives the reason why this command is set forth and necessary
in the local church: "For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam
was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression." The
Divine command in no way denotes any form of inferiority of women. Rather,
this text reminds the reader that God has determined an order for the institutions
that He has established. Paul's reasons for prohibiting a woman from authoritatively
teaching the Word of God to men in the local assembly were based upon two
historical events: the creation and the fall. Concerning creation, Kent writes, "The
very chronological order of creation proves that Eve was not intended to
direct Adam."29 Bowen agrees, noting that Adam's "chronological
primacy in creation carried with it some degree of authority."30 Notice
Brown's observation concerning the theology of the Progressives in relation
to their view of women in the church:
The rejection of the special and separate creation of man and of woman
is so common in our day that many may not even notice the psychological
pressure placed on them to deny every principle of order derived from
it. It is in this climate that rejects (or ignores) the fundamental doctrine
of creation in which egalitarian (re)interpretations of 1 Timothy 2:12
have flourished. It seems hardly promising to dispute the details, for
it is often the fundamental principles that effectively control the outcome
of one's interpretation.31
Such is certainly the case! If the Progressives do not even accept the literal,
special and separate creation of man and women, then the very underlying
principle of why men hold a position of authority within the home
and church is worthless, and no practical implications can be built from
Yet not only are women to refrain from authoritatively proclaiming the Word
of God to men due to the very order established by God from the time of creation,
but they also must heed God's order as a result of the very nature of the
fall. Again, verse 14 does not in any way denote the idea that women are
less intelligent or even more easily deceived than men. Such is obviously
not always the case, for men and women are equal as individuals in the sight
of God, though each has been entrusted with a differing function or role.
Rather, this verse relates the fact that Eve usurped authority over her husband
by partaking of the fruit in disobedience to the clear command of God. Kent
writes, "Thus the fall was caused, not only by disobeying God's command
not to eat, but also by violating the divinely appointed relation between
the sexes. Woman assumed headship, and man with full knowledge of the act,
subordinated himself to her leadership and ate of the fruit (Rom. 5: 19)."32 Bowen
calls this the
"reversal of roles" and says that "Paul's point is that this
role reversal that caused such devastation at the beginning must not be repeated
in the church."33 While such a standard of male headship
might not be popular or politically correct within today's culture, such
are the norms God has established for His church, and those who are His children
will only honor and glorify Him by subscribing to His standards with a willing
heart and mind.
If one accepts the inerrancy and historical accuracy of Scripture and correctly
interprets 1 Timothy 2:9-15, then all portions of New Testament Scripture
that address the role of women in the local assembly will fall into place.
For example, one will understand what Paul meant when he commanded women
to "keep silence" in the local church (1 Cor. 14:33-34). One will
also understand why the proscriptive nature of the Pastoral Epistles declares
that a pastor/bishop/elder must be "the husband of one wife" (1
Tim. 3:2). The reader of the Pastoral Epistles must understand that Paul
is giving direct, divine revelation concerning the roles and behavior of
men and women in the local church, and women and men both possess certain
ministries and responsibilities to fulfill. However, the woman is forbidden
from preaching, or authoritatively proclaiming the truth of the Word of God,
to men in a local assembly of believers. Today, this authoritative proclamation
of the Word of God would include any form of pastoral ministry or the holding
of any ordained office. The reasons for this divine injunction stem from
God's prescribed order in creation, in the family and in the local church.
1 Eva Stimson, editor. Together on Holy Ground. Geneva,
Switzerland: WCC Publications, 1999, p. 21.
2 The book which contains the citation as well as the conclusions
of the Hartford Seminary study is Clergy Women: An Uphill Calling by
Barbara Brown Zikmund, Adair T. Lummis and Patricia M. Y. Chang. Louisville,
KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, p. 138.
3 Ibid, p. 133.
4 Ibid, p. 155.
5 Bruce A. Robinson, "Women Clergy in Orthodox and Protestant
Christianity, and Other Religions." http://www.religioustolerance.org/femclrg4.htm.
6Shelly Steig, Finding the Right Church: A Guide to Denomination
Beliefs. Iowa Falls, LA: World Bible Publishers, Inc., 1997, p 110.
7 Assemblies of God position paper. "The Role of Women in
Ministry as Described in Holy Scripture." August 1990. This document
can be found at http://ag.org/top/ position_papers/0000_index.cfm.
8 Steig, p. 166.
9Interview with Anne Graham Lotz on CBS's "60 Minutes," June
10Susan Hogan/Albach, "The Bible Tells Them So: Evangelical
Group Embraces Gender Egalitarianism as the Only Scriptural Way." The
Dallas Morning News, June 16, 2001.
12Daniel Doriani, "A History of the Interpretation of I Timothy
2,"Appendix 1 in Women in the Church: A Fresh Analysis of 1Timothy
2:9-15, Andreas J. Kostenberger, Thomas R. Schreiner and H. Scott Baldwin,
eds. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995, pp. 213-267.
13Robert W. Yarbrough, "The Hermeneutics of I Timothy 2:9-15," Essay
in Women in the Church: A Fresh Analysis of 1Timothy 2:9-15, Andreas
J. Kostenberger, Thomas R. Schreiner and H. Scott Baldwin, eds. Grand Rapids:
Baker Books, 1995, pp. 167-171.
14Ibid., pp. 169-170.
15Thomas C. Oden, First and Second Timothy and Titus. Louisville:
John Knox Press, 1989, p. 116.
16Homer A. Kent Jr., The Pastoral Epistles. Winona Lake:
BMH Books, 1986, P. 106.
17Ann L. Bowman. "Women in Ministry: An Exegetical Study of
1 Timothy 2:11-15," Bibliotheca Sacra, April-June 1992, p. 198.
18Thomas R. Schreiner. "An Interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:9-15:
A Dialogue with Scholarship," Essay in Women in the Church: A Fresh
Analysis of 1Timothy 2:9-15, Andreas J. Kostenberger, Thomas R. Schreiner
and H. Scott Baldwin, eds. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995, p. 122.
19Bowman, p. 198.
20 Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles. Tyndale New Testament
Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990, p. 86
21David R. Nicholas, What's a Woman to Do ...In the Church? Scottsdale,
AZ: Good Life Productions, Inc., 1979, p. 107.
22S. M. Baugh, "A Foreign World: Ephesus in the First Century," Essay
in Women in the Church: A Fresh Analysis of 1 Timothy 2:9-15, Andreas
J. Kostenberger, Thomas R. Schreiner and H. Scott Baldwin, eds. Grand Rapids:
Baker Books, 1995, pp. 49-50.
23T. David Gordon, "A Certain Kind of Letter: The Genre of
I Timothy," Essay in Women in the Church: A Fresh Analysis of 1 Timothy
2:9-15, Andreas J. Kostenberger, Thomas R. Schreiner and H. Scott Baldwin,
eds. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995, p. 61.
24Bowen, p. 200.
25Robert L. Saucy, "Women's Prohibition to Teach Men,"
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 37:1 (March 1994),
26Ibid., p. 88.
27Ibid., p. 89.
28Kent, p. 108.
29Ibid., P. 109.
30Bowen, p. 205.
31Harold O. J. Brown, "The New Testament Against Itself:
1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the 'Breakthrough' of Galatians 3:28," Essay in Women
in the Church: A Fresh Analysis of 1Timothy 2:9-15, Andreas J. Kostenberger,
Thomas R. Schreiner and H. Scott Baldwin, eds. Grand Rapids: Baker Books,
1995, p. 204.
32Kent, P. 109.
33Bowen, p. 206.